Coffee is one of the most popular drinks in the world, which is made from roasted coffee beans, which are actually the seeds or seeds of the coffee plant. The coffee plant is native to subtropical Africa and Asia, but today Central and South America are the largest producers of coffee in the world.
Coffee beans vary in size, shape, color and taste depending on the region and conditions in which they grow. There are generally 4 types of coffee beans produced in the world; Arabica coffee, Robusta coffee, Liberica coffee and Excelsa coffee.
In this article, we have examined the types of coffee and the differences between Arabica and Robusta coffees.
Types of coffee beans
- Arabica coffee
You’ve probably heard the name Arabica coffee a lot; These types of coffee beans make up more than 60% of the coffee produced in the world. Arabica coffee tree grows in mountainous areas and highlands where there is a lot of rainfall and also in the shade. The trees are relatively small, about 9 to 12 meters high, but commercial species grow up to 5 meters high, making them very easy to harvest. Arabica coffee beans are of high quality and are known as the most delicious coffee in the world. The seeds are small and light in color, containing 0.8 to 1.4% caffeine, have a higher acidity than robusta but are sweeter than robusta.
Origin of Arabica coffee
The Arabica tree is native to the mountains of Yemen, Ethiopia and Sudan, but today the best varieties are grown in Brazil, Jamaica, Colombia, Costa Rica, Kenya, Antigua, Guatemala and Ethiopia.
Properties of Arabica coffee
1- Arabica coffee reduces the risk of cancer due to its high levels of antioxidants.
2- It has strong antimicrobial properties and is useful for oral health.
3-Helps improve brain function and reduces the risk of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.
4- Arabica coffee helps increase the production of endorphins in the body and helps treat depression by reducing stress and anxiety.
5.The antioxidants in Arabica coffee help reduce free radicals in the body and rejuvenate facial skin.
6- Caffeine in it increases the production of insulin in the blood and treats type 2 diabetes.
7- Caffeine in Arabica coffee helps increase the body’s metabolism and causes weight loss.
8- The high amounts of caffeine in Arabica coffee help treat hair loss and strengthen and increase their growth.
9- Arabica coffee contains sufficient amounts of potassium and calcium, which strengthens nails.
Robusta coffee is another type of coffee bean that accounts for 40% of the world’s coffee production. Robusta coffee tree in warm climates where there is less rainfall and grows well in light and is very resistant to environmental conditions. The height of this tree reaches 10 meters. Robusta coffee beans are small and have a smooth texture, are of lower quality than Arabica and contain 1.7 to 4% caffeine. (Perhaps the reason for their resistance to harsh environmental conditions is the high caffeine content in them). Robusta coffee has a lower acidity and a more bitter taste than Arabica, and is mostly used to make instant coffee and espresso (espresso is usually made from a combination of Arabica and Robusta coffee).
Origin of Robusta coffee
The Robusta tree is native to Ethiopia and grows well in West and Central Africa from Liberia to Tanzania and southern Angola. Today, Vietnam, Brazil, Indonesia, India and Uganda are the largest producers of Robusta coffee in the world.
Properties of Robusta coffee
1- Robusta coffee has natural diuretic properties and due to its high levels of antioxidants, it helps treat high fever and asthma.
2- Due to its high amounts of caffeine, it helps to improve the body’s metabolism and causes weight loss by increasing fat burning.
3-High levels of caffeine in Robusta coffee help boost brain function and reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.
Liberica coffee is one of the types of coffee beans that is very rare today, but has an important place in the history of world coffee. In 1890, the coffee bell destroyed more than 90% of Arabica coffee in the world, while people in Indonesia replaced Liberica coffee with Arabica. As a result, farmers were forced to replace the Arabica tree with Liberica to increase world coffee production. Unfortunately, by 1995, most Liberica trees had died of the fungus, and very few remain in the world today. The liberica coffee tree grows to a height of 20 meters and the coffee beans produced from it are larger than other types. Liberica coffee beans have an asymmetrical and irregular shape and have a smoky aroma and taste.
Origin of Liberica coffee
The Liberica tree is native to West and Central Africa from Liberia to Uganda and Angola, but also grows in the Philippines, Seychelles, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, French Polynesia, Central America, the West Indies, Venezuela, Colombia, Malaysia and Brazil.
Although Axcelsa has been classified as a member of the Liberica family in recent years, some believe that the two are different; Axcelsa accounts for only 7% of the world’s coffee production, and its tree is about 25 meters tall. The coffee beans produced from it are as large as Liberica coffee beans, have an asymmetrical and irregular shape, and have a smoky aroma and taste.
Origin of Excel coffee
Axcelsa tree is native to Southeast Asia.
Kopi Luwak coffe
All types of coffee beans in the feces of an animal are called cat breeds, which is known as the most expensive and rarest coffee in the world. In many parts of Indonesia where coffee is grown, breeding cats, both domestic and wild, roam large crop fields and select the best coffee fruits to eat. Then their feces are collected and after washing, they are roasted with high heat.
Origin of Kopi Luwak coffee
This type of coffee is produced in Indonesia, especially Sumatra, Java and Bali.
Coffee roast grading
To brew coffee, you must first roast or roast green coffee beans. Coffee beans are divided into different types based on the amount of roasting:
- Light roast coffee
This type of coffee is very tasty and fragrant and has more acidity, and since it is less roasted, it has a lighter color and a stronger aroma than other types.
Light rest coffees include Cinnamon, American, Half City and New England.
- Medium roast coffee
Medium roast coffee has less acidity than light roast, and because it is more roasted, it looks brown, is sweeter than light roast, and its surface is drier. This type of coffee is the most popular coffee roast in the world and Turkish coffee is the most famous of this type of roast.
- Dark Roast Coffee
Dark roast coffee has less acidity than other types and is dark brown because it is roasted a lot. They have an oily surface and its aroma and taste are spicy and smoky. French, Viennese, Italian and espresso coffees are some of the most popular types of Dark Roast coffee.
1- Robusta coffee has more caffeine than Arabica, Arabica coffee has 0.8 to 1.4 and Robusta 1.7 to 4% caffeine.
2- Arabica coffee has more fat and sugar than Robusta, Arabica coffee has 60% fat and its sugar concentration is almost twice that of Robusta.
3- Arabica coffee has a higher quality and price than Robusta.
4- Robusta tree grows in hot and dry climates and needs light, but Arabica tree grows in mountainous and humid climates and mostly in the shade.
- Arabica tree is between 2.5 to 4.5 meters high, while the height of Robusta tree reaches 10 meters.
6- Robusta seeds are small and circular in shape, while Arabica seeds are larger and more oval.
7- About 60% of the coffee produced in the world is Arabica and 40% is Robusta. Brazil produces the most Arabica coffee and Vietnam the most Robusta.
8- All types of instant coffees are prepared from Robusta type.